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Case Based Reasoning FAQ
Induce-It is a
tool that creates case-based expert systems from Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet databases. Case-based
reasoning is appropriate for applications that require the
representation and storage of actual experiences. Case-based
reasoning retrieves and adapts cases from a case database, based on
the similarity of past cases to a goal problem case. Using
Induce-It, problem-solving corresponds to the steps of (i) finding
the cases most similar to the current problem; (ii) adapting and
extrapolating the past answers from the best cases; (iii) performing
the action indicated in one or more "answer" fields for
the current problem. If needed, the new problems can be easily
entered as a new case.
Who Uses Induce-It?
Induce-It application consists of building a case database and
installing the appropriate case similarity functions into an
"inductive database." Induce-It provides a comprehensive
set of similarity and extrapolation functions, accessed by a customized menu ribbon.
Induce-It interfaces with all standard Microsoft Excel editing,
charting, database, button, dialog, and macro commands.
Induce-It is compatible with the latest versions of Excel
- both under 32- and 64-bit Windows implementations.
comprehensive interactive help takes you through the process of
building and using a case-based application.
Induce-It requires Microsoft
Excel -- Version 2007 and later.
are any set of cases that can be read by Microsoft Excel in any one
of 13 different formats. The Induce-It output is an Excel case-based
spreadsheet, that represents a case database, case similarity rules,
and case extrapolation and adaptation rules.
and SpeedWith the Excel user interface, the
maximum size of Induce-It case databases is about 16,000 records,
having at most 256 fields. Induce-It case database retrieval is very
efficient because it uses the case and field similarities as search
Induce-It Supports the following
algorithms for case-based reasoning:
- Free Form Text
computes similarities between fields based on string matching
(with wildcards ).
similarities using four different ratio and distance metrics.
similarities between Ranks: ordered lists denoting a preference.
- User-Defined Field
Computes field similarities with a user-defined formula.
numerical field values onto symbolic Ranges.
textual field values onto numerical values (Scales).
textual hierarchies (inheritance structures) onto numerical
values. For example, "peas" can match
"spinach" because they are both green vegetables.
- Linear Weights
similarities between cases based on the weighted importance of
- Fuzzy Logic Scores
Computes case similarities using different fuzzy operators
for AND, OR, and NOT.
- Euclidean Scores
case similarities based on weighted Euclidean (least mean
- Cosine Scores
case similarities based on a correlation measure.
value of a case field using the field values of the best
Given a case,
determines alternate similar cases based on the case field
- Install New Case
new case into the case database.
- Extract Answers
the best cases in ranked order using a user-defined database
- Run Shell
to spreadsheet input: runs an interactive dialog to acquire a
The basic single-user license
includes the case-based reasoning development tools and case
database utilities integrated with the Microsoft Excel user inteface
macros and dynamic link libraries; an on-line tutorial; a 120 Page
Manual; and sample Applications. Induce-It comes with EMail Technical
Case-Based Reasoning and Induce-It
is Case-Based Reasoning?Case-Based reasoning is based on
searching a database that stores cases -- a representation of past
problem profiles and solutions -- for solutions to similar problems.
The answer to a problem is adapted from the answer to the most
similar problem that I already solved. Case-based
answers are adapted from the closest matching cases, ranked
by case score, and displayed to users in a sorted list. Case
adaptation reconstructs variations, mutations, or versions of basic
cases, in order to represent all possibilities in a smaller case
Case-Based Expert Systems Differ from Rule-Based Expert
Systems?Case-based reasoning is inductive
(based on measuring case similarity), rather than deductive (based
on logic and consistency). Builders do not have to learn an IF-THEN
programming language. Building a case-based system is easy: new
cases and new fields added to the case database do not have to be
consistent with previous cases.
Case-Based Expert Systems Differ from Neural
Networks? Case-based systems retrieve
and adapt cases that are stored in a case database. Neural networks
are functions that match input patterns to output patterns: no case
is retrieved. Neural networks resort to statistics for an
explanation; case-based systems display the most similar cases for
an explanation, and can be used for querying and what-if
analysis. Case-based reasoning systems are most useful for
is Induce-It?Induce-It is a tool that creates
case-based expert systems from Microsoft Excel spreadsheet
databases. Induce-It is the first system that integrates the
versatility of spreadsheets with the power of case-based reasoning
and case adaptation. You can use Induce-It case-based spreadsheets
as smart input forms; as smart databases (that support
fuzzy queries); and as spreadsheet expert systems to
enhance existing spreadsheet models.
Induce-It Easy to Use?Induce-It provides over 45 new
commands (configured in 4 new Excel menubars) for developing
case-based expert systems within Microsoft Excel. Induce-It also
provides an interactive 30 minute tutorial that takes you through
the process of building and using a case-based spreadsheet.
tools are provided for Case Retrieval and Case
Adaptation?Induce-It provides field
similarity functions for case fields of type Symbol, Free Form Text,
Number, Range, Scale, Rank, List, Hierarchy, as well as
"User-Defined" similarity functions that you specify by a
spreadsheet formula; case similarity functions for combining field
similarities based on field importance (weighted, fuzzy, and
Bernoulli scores); routines for parametrized and structural case
adaptation; and utilities for concept formation (case clustering),
statistics (Dixon outlier test), and case database tuning.
Induce-It Portable and Customizable Case-Based Reasoning
Systems?Induce-It runs under all
implementations of Microsoft Excel (version 4.0 or higher),
including Windows, Macintosh, and Sun under Solaris. Induce-It
macros interface with all Excel spreadsheet commands for charting,
for spreadsheet formatting and for reporting and printing. You can
customize an application by specifying case and field explanations,
messages, and instructions in your Excel case-based spreadsheet.
you Build a Case-Based Expert System Spreadsheet with
Induce-It?If you know how to use a
spreadsheet, then you know how to use Induce-It. Building a
case-based expert system spreadsheet is a three-step process:
- Specify the Case
Select case profiles and import them as
spreadsheet data. Specify case field types, field structures,
field similarity functions, case similarity functions, and case
adaptation functions. Specify case and field explanations,
instructions, and messages.
- Tune the Case
Match the solutions of stored cases, with cases
whose field values best match a test problem new case fields.
Induce-It provides special chart, database, and statistical
functions to assist you in tuning case databases.
- Customize the
Use Excel's formatting commands to configure
your case-based spreadsheet application -- Induce-It interfaces
with all Excel editing, charting, database, and macro commands.
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